Classification of Sauces        

Sauces vary in composition, color, taste, smell and consistency according to their ingredients, preparation and the use to which they are intended. In this sense, each sauce will have its own characteristics. Sauces are thickened liquid foods, prepared through a slow and careful cooking process, in order to concentrate to the maximum the flavors, smells, nutritional and gelatinous elements of the ingredients that constitute it. 

Classification of Sauces  

One of the most used classification in the gastronomic world is "Mother sauces" and "derived sauces".

The most widespread belief is that mother sauces were born in French gastronomy, at least the main ones did. Antonine Carême was the first to classify sauces, he distinguished between hot and cold sauces; but he went further and distinguished 4 sauces as the mother sauces of the kitchen:

• German: beaten egg and lemon juice.

Bechamel: flour, butter and milk

Spanish: brown beef, beef, etc.

Velouté: light fish, chicken and even venison broths

Those were the 4 mother sauces of the kitchen, until at the dawn of the 20th century, chef Auguste Escoffier replaced some sauces and added a new one to the list. Since then the list of the 5 mother sauces of Escoffier is the one that is taken as valid. You will notice that there are 6 in the list, it is that the hollandaise sauce and mayonnaise came to replace the German sauce, while the Pomodoro tomato sauce was incorporated. Some authors consider that mayonnaise cannot be included as a mother sauce since it is practically the same as hollandaise but butter is substituted for oil. 

And they are Mothers simply because almost 90% of the rest of the sauces come out of them, they are the basis for creating any other sauce. Later we will see that there are some cases in which the sauce does not come from any of these 5 mother sauces but the minimum ones.

By controlling these 5 Mother Sauces to perfection, we can create innumerable sauces for all our pasta dishes, meat, fish, poultry, ... and much more. It is a great subject since the sauce is what gives us life and resurrects our dishes. 

These mother sauces are the bases and can be cold or hot, within the cold ones they can be emulsified or not, and within the non-emulsified they can be cooked or not, and the emulsified ones can be blended.

Hot Sauces:

French cuisine divides hot cuisine into 5 mother sauces, but three of them are dark: Spanish, demi glace and tomato; and two are clear: the béchamel together with velouté.

Four of them start from a protein background.

The Spanish sauce: the spanish sauce it is a dark background (bone of animal origin) mixed with a roux and fortified with bacon, bay leaf, thyme, salt and pepper.

This sauce takes its name since it first appeared at the wedding banquet of Luis XIII and Ana de Austria, a sauce with meat that lacked a name and that was made by some Spanish chefs who captivated the palates of the monarch who decided to baptize it with the name of Spanish Sauce in honor of those cooks who prepared it. 

The demi glace sauce: it is a Spanish sauce enhanced with red wine and boiled again until reduced.

Tomato sauce (Pomodoro):  tomato sauce is tomato puree, with bacon, butter, bay leaf, thyme, flour, white background (vegetable), garlic, salt, sugar and pepper

The velouté sauce: velouté sauce It is a light background (vegetable) mixed with a roux and seasoned with salt, white pepper and nutmeg, we must add that this same sauce, but with egg yolks it is better known as Parisian sauce or German sauce.

Velouté is a light sauce that is made up of a broth (called a light background, which can be poultry or veal, even a fish stock), all mixed with a roux (it can be white or blond). For example, a bird velouté would be made up of a bird background and a blond roux. It is a mother sauce, so it can be used as a base for other sauces in French cuisine. Fish velouté is called “lean velouté” and that made with veal is generically called “fat white sauce.” The generally dense appearance of this sauce means that it is sometimes referred to as a cream.

The word velouté means velvety and its name comes from the final texture that this sauce has between something light and silky on the palate. The most generic preparation starts from a roux (butter and flour in a sauce in equal parts) that is mixed with a broth. 

The bechamel sauce: This sauce is undoubtedly the most used in the gastronomic world, its base is milk and linked with a roux, seasoned with onion, cloves, salt, white pepper and nutmeg.

The bechamel is used to thicken the cooking juices of stews and roasts and thus turn them into creamy sauces. It also allows to give a bound and creamy finish to soups called "creams", such as cream of mushrooms, asparagus, spinach, etc.

The many possible variations of the bechamel sauce allow you to incorporate cheeses, as in the Mornay sauce. You can also incorporate finely chopped ingredients such as sautéed onion or all kinds of meat, vegetables or fish, as when preparing croquettes, stuffed with peppers or to make the famous French souffle. Some of the variations are famous, as in the case of the Villeroy sauce, which is used in the batters of some dishes such as Villeroy chicken. When mustard and white wine are added, you have the Thermidor sauce, used in the preparation of fish or seafood (Thermidor lobster).

Another possible variation is to make it, for example, with soy milk, being then suitable for vegans and lactose intolerant. It also lends itself to being flavored with all kinds of spices such as curry or nutmeg. Likewise, cornstarch can be used instead of wheat flour, then suitable for people intolerant to gluten (such as celiacs) . 

The similarity between velouté, béchamel sauce and Spanish sauce is that all three use a roux. The difference between velouté and béchamel is that the latter is based on the use of milk as a diluent for the final (in addition to a flour flavor reliever), while velouté uses broth and roux as a final emulsifier. . The difference between Velouté and Spanish sauce is that the latter is made with dark backgrounds (broths). The preparation of the velouté starts from having a clear broth and a roux. The roux is poured hot over the broth until its viscosity increases and the desired texture is achieved. An approximate proportion of 60 grams of roux sauce per liter of background is usually mentioned. If you want to add more or less thickness, simply increase or decrease the amount of roux. 

Classification of Sauces

Classification of Sauces

Cold Sauces

Within the cold kitchen such as salads, sauces such as mayonnaise, hollandaise and vinaigrettes appear. And some of the derived sauces that we can see are:

Mayonnaises: the mayonnaise sauce they are cold emulsified sauces based on egg yolk, vegetable oil (olive oil will be incredible) some acid such as vinegar or lemon juice

Hollandaise sauce: hollandaise sauce an emulsified sauce, but this is warm unlike mayonnaise.Its preparation is over a very, very slow fire, it is advisable to do it in a water bath, slow since it consists of egg yolks, butter, an acid, a little water so that the emulsion turns out, salt, pepper.

Hollandaise Sauce is obtained from the emulsion of egg yolks as an emulsifying agent and clarified butter with lemon juice or vinegar that is usually seasoned with salt and white pepper. It is a sauce of great difficulty since it is necessary to control the clarification of the butter very well so that it does not have impurities and control its temperature so that the yolks do not cook but that they do not remain raw either. It is very delicate and its conservation does not exist and should be consumed immediately.

Vinaigrettes: they are the last of the sauces emulsified with vinegar, oil and an aromatic product

What are the classification of the derived Sauces?

Dark mother sauces: the bigarade, the Bordeaux mixture, the barbecue sauce, the Bolognese, the Neapolitan, the chasseur, among others.

Hot emulsified sauces: Choron sauce, fayoy, truffle and hollandaise sauce, muslin.

Cold emulsified sauces: Aioli, roülle, remoulade, tartar, Russian, anchovy, gribiche, ravigote. 

Classification of Sauces  

In the 19th century, Marie-Antoine Carême classified the sauces into 4 families from which the rest of the sauces were derived, the mother sauces being: béchamel, Spanish, velouté and German. In the 20th century, chef Auguste Escoffier updated this classification, which is still in force today in cooking schools, with the following mother sauces: Spanish, velouté, béchamel, hollandaise, mayonnaise and tomato. 

Another classification of sauces 

Sauces, sauces and more sauces. Red or white, spicy or not, sweet or salty: there is always one washing our dishes. Therefore, we share some tips when preparing them so that you have some tricks up your sleeve that will get you out of a hurry.

In the kitchens of the world, there is a great diversity of sauces; from a pico de gallo in Mexico to a pesto in Italy, they are elements that add a touch of extra flavor to dishes. Perhaps among the best known are the classic sauces of French cuisine (velouté, béchamel, Spanish and tomato), called "mother sauces" by the gourmet Marie-Antonie Carême in the 19th century, for serving as a base to make other sauces . Added to the list was the Dutch one, included in the early twentieth century by chef Auguste Escoffier. But what are sauces? These are preparations that are served to accompany a meal and that can be hot, cold, raw, cooked, liquid or thick. Most sauces are made from an emulsion, roux –cooked mixture of flour and butter–, a puree of some fruit or vegetable, or a cold mix of two or more ingredients. Here is a list of recommendations when preparing and preserving your sauces.

White sauces

White sauces are the perfect canvas to experiment with flavors. White sauces, such as bechamel, start from a roux or some dairy such as cream, as in the case of some dressings or dips. To obtain a partially thick roux-based sauce, it must contain 6% flour and the same amount of butter. For example, in the case of a béchamel, for each liter of milk, there should be 60 g of flour and 60 g of butter. Cream-based preparations with raw ingredients like figs, lemon juice, or pineapple are often cut up. To avoid clots, cook the cream over low heat with a little flour before adding an acidic ingredient; This will prevent mix instability.

Storage TIP

White sauces can be refrigerated for 5 to 7 days. If you want to learn how to make bechamel sauce, this video will help you.

Dark sauces

These sauces are rich in umami, the fifth flavor reminiscent of meat. They are generally used to bathe pieces of red meat. Dark sauces start from a dark background - flavored broth made from beef, veal or game - so if you make it with quality ingredients, you will have a good part of the flavor of your sauce guaranteed. To properly thicken these types of sauces, add a cup of broth for every 10 or 20 grams of flour or according to the thickness you require. If you've sealed a piece of meat, you can make a dark sauce by deglazing the pan: add a little onion and dark broth, and use flour to thicken the mixture. You will get a sauce with a powerful and concentrated flavor.

Due to their high amount of proteins and carbohydrates, these sauces have the ideal conditions for the growth of microorganisms. Therefore, if you are not consuming it immediately, cool the sauce in a reverse water bath and store it in the refrigerator. The shelf life of this sauce when refrigerated is 1 to 2 days.

Fruit and vegetable-based sauces

These sauces are versatile and nutritious, as they are rich in fiber and carbohydrates, which also gives them a pleasant consistency. Before preparing fruit and vegetable based sauces, be sure to wash and sanitize the ingredients. It is advisable to immerse them in water with the disinfectant (chlorine or iodine) of your preference, following the manufacturer's specifications. Most of these sauces, like Mexican table sauces, start from a puree. To do this, crush the fruit or vegetables with a minimum amount of water, in order not to leave very large pieces of solids. Passing the preparation through a strainer also helps to obtain a smooth texture. If the ingredients are very watery, as is the case with tomatoes, use your oven to evaporate the water and obtain a thick sauce. If the sauce is very liquid and you need to thicken it, you can use a puree with some legume paste, fat or a binding agent such as cornstarch.

Storage TIP

These sauces are rich in sugars, so to avoid the growth of microorganisms, you should keep them refrigerated, between 0 and 4 ° C. If the sauce is served hot, make sure it is above 60 ° C You can store them between 5 and 7 days.

Emulsified and oil-based sauces

Sauces such as mayonnaise or hollandaise are popular in this category because they are an emulsion between egg and fat. While both are loved by many, they are also the terror of the kitchen, as nothing is more disappointing than being cut in the middle of the cooking process. A sauce is cut many times by the presence of heat, as in the case of hollandaise sauce, or by excess oil. To avoid this, take care of the amounts of ingredients you use and the place where you will make your sauces. In warm sauces such as hollandaise, it is recommended to add an ice to lower the temperature or a tablespoon of cold water in sauces such as mayonnaise. Vinaigrettes are essential sauces to accompany salads; however, at rest they are unstable. Therefore, emulsify them before serving; To do this, you can use thickening agents such as mustard, jam or some puree. For infused oils or oily sauces such as tahini, chimichurri, macha or pesto, it is recommended to wash, disinfect or go through a cooking method, if necessary, all the ingredients. Failure to do so could provide the conditions for the growth of anaerobic pathogenic microorganisms, that is, those that do not require oxygen to develop, such as Clostridium botulinum.

Storage TIP

Egg-based sauces have a very short storage life, because their appearance changes when stored, so it is recommended to prepare only the amount that you will consume at that time. Instead, to prevent oil-based sauces from going browning, store them in covered containers in a cool, dark place, like the refrigerator. 

Classification of Sauces

Classification of Sauces

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